As far as I think projection of data unto subject mind is information for the subject whereas indentation or impressions accumulated owing to projection of data unto subject mind is knowledge for the subject. I want to know am I right? Or can someone provide a more rigorous answer!

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    Does your take stem from reading particular texts? Does it rest on them, or completely go further than them? If so, in which respects? Elaborating the question in these regards will make it easier for others to understand where you are coming from and where the question is aiming at. :)
    – Philip Klöcking
    Oct 14, 2016 at 2:37
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    On informatics, "data" are the bits in the computer's memory ; "information" is an interpretation of those bits. I think you are using the exact concept, with different names, applied not to a computer but to the brain. I think you are doing a particularization of the concepts, not commonly acceptd. In general, information is related to isolated and registered facts and knowledge to mentally integrated facts. See infogineering.net/data-information-knowledge.htm
    – RodolfoAP
    Oct 14, 2016 at 4:12
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    @Philip Sir, actually - I had read 'knowledge binds'. So in that context. :)
    – Mr. Sigma.
    Oct 14, 2016 at 11:56
  • @RodolfoAP Actually, in the Shannon sense they do not have to be interpreted, if you mean the human act of understanding, only transmitted, or put in a form that is ready for transmission. I think this is more honest to the original meaning, which is one of the two halves of teaching, and not part of knowing.
    – user9166
    Oct 14, 2016 at 14:45

2 Answers 2


To be a little sarcastic: Data are given, Information informs, and Knowledge is known. But the point is that their etymological roots are nouns made of verbs 'dare: to give', 'in/formare: into/to build', and "cnawan: to discern'.

To be given means that the data simply exists, and may not even be processed, but it is available in some form. The number on the side of an instrument or a 3000-page list of numbers that no one will ever read are still data.

To inform means that the information is being added, transmitted, acquired, etc. to form the mind. The 'in' is a direction, and information, therefore, has a dynamic quality. But in its modern sense, information does not have to go into a mind, it can go into a repository of data.

But knowledge is specific to the mind. It is etymologically related to recognition, not storage. It bears the sense of internal perception. To know something is to have the emotional impression of having it, and having impressions or perceptions cause recognition of it, bringing it out of some passive state so that it can be experienced as present in the mind.

  • I've got a doubt. Then what is the basic difference between realization and knowledge ?
    – Mr. Sigma.
    Oct 14, 2016 at 15:55
  • I would say realization is the effect of knowledge -- perhaps its main or only effect. There is some internal component that comes forward when you recognize or realize something. The realization itself is bringing that before into the mind, what comes forward is knowledge.
    – user9166
    Oct 14, 2016 at 16:04

I'll bite. This is how I understand it, and I think at least 3 distinctions are needed given the way the concept is used in various disciplines.

Data = Bits or other un-grounded symbols which denote the state of some system from the the set of all possible states in a 1:1 ratio with the degrees of freedom of the system. Describing a large circle requires more data than a small one. Ex: Bitmap graphics.

Information = Data which has been compressed. The 'minimum' set of data needed to fully describe a given state of the system. No extra bits. Circles of any size can be described with nearly the same information by generalizing the data from many circles into the common factors which make them all circles. Ex: Vector Graphics.

Knowledge = Information which has been given meaning by interrupting the symbols in relation to other, existing, information. Requires an agent and information external to the system in question. Deciding these bits represent a 'circle'. Ex: Human viewing image on monitor.

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    Let me ponder on your last: information can be stored by bits, fine. Let's think about the first x primes as example. Store these in y bits (y>x). Now you find a way to predict primes by an easy formula, which can be stored in z bits, with z<y. Now you can erase (y-z) bits and gain energy by increasing entropy -> Knowledge is the warm feeling when you understand something...
    – draks ...
    Mar 16, 2017 at 15:58

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