The Lagrangian formulation of mechanics seems to be an interesting example for 'pseudo-teleology': a particle at starting position (a, b) with final position (x, y) will take the path of smallest action (the path integral of T - V, with T kinetic and V potential energy) between these positions.
At first, it seems there is foresight of the particle involved, teleology. But on a closer look this is wrong, it is an illusion to think that the particle calculates paths ahead of time. The Lagrangian formulation can be mathematically derived from Newton's laws, in which normal, instantaneous causation determines everything.
But I'm not so happy with this example. It's mathematically relatively complicated (in the context of philosophy), i.e. it cannot be understood with high-school math. Also, contrary to what I said before, I actually believe that there is some "cheating" involved, because it is not so clear that the Lagrangian formulation can really be deduced from Newton's laws without some extra assumptions.
Do you know a similar but mathematically simpler example? It doesn't have to come from a physical theory, the model can be completely fictional.