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I'm curious if anyone has any suggestions for finding contemporary philosophy essays/books (i.e., not Aristotle) which deal with the connection between virtue and well-being.

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Maybe you want to check out Elizabeth Anscombe, her essay "Modern Moral Philosophy" might be considered a "contemporary revival of virtue theory". Apparently she believes that duty based ethics need a legislator, and as she doesn't see one she's suggesting a return to virtue ethics. Wikipedia names quite some contemporary writers on virtue ethics, e.g. MacIntyre and Ricoeur. You can find the names of the essays there.

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Rosalind Hursthouse might be worth checking out. She addresses the criticism of virtue ethics that it can't be a viable alternative to utilitarianism or deontology because it's not action-guiding. In doing so, she shows that it can be action-guiding, and that it isn't necessarily incompatible with utilitarian or deontological ethical theories.

Her article at Wikipedia has a good list of her works. Her essay "Normative Virtue Ethics" in How Should One Live? (ed. Roger Crisp) discusses the content of this answer.

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