I'm curious if anyone has any suggestions for finding contemporary philosophy essays/books (i.e., not Aristotle) which deal with the connection between virtue and well-being.
Maybe you want to check out Elizabeth Anscombe, her essay "Modern Moral Philosophy" might be considered a "contemporary revival of virtue theory". Apparently she believes that duty based ethics need a legislator, and as she doesn't see one she's suggesting a return to virtue ethics. Wikipedia names quite some contemporary writers on virtue ethics, e.g. MacIntyre and Ricoeur. You can find the names of the essays there.
Rosalind Hursthouse might be worth checking out. She addresses the criticism of virtue ethics that it can't be a viable alternative to utilitarianism or deontology because it's not action-guiding. In doing so, she shows that it can be action-guiding, and that it isn't necessarily incompatible with utilitarian or deontological ethical theories.
Her article at Wikipedia has a good list of her works. Her essay "Normative Virtue Ethics" in How Should One Live? (ed. Roger Crisp) discusses the content of this answer.