If you ask the question to a former age, prior to our own epoch, it would be shown that the concept of causality is baseless. Many old books of philosophy, before the Analytic takeover, show this in detail, argue it out.
The crude gist is that the sine qua non cause, the immediate cause, is conditioned, ultimately by the whole universe at a particular moment. Usually, when one speaks of the proximate causes, the things necessary to let something happen, one takes almost everything for granted, example, gravity. This is one of the central issues in philosophy proper, which is to say, not Analytic Philosophy nor any other qualified form of philosophy which is often what one is trained in these days. That amounts to saying that the training is about philosophy of science, however, in the decisive respect philosophy proper no longer exists.
The training is lacking. It has a diminished afterlife in Literary Theory and so-called Continental Philosophy and the mentioned Analytic Philosophy/Philosophy of Science (and many other fields). I make these remarks to explain why the issue is very much obscured and turbid. If you like I will delineate the main points of these modern developments which are decisive for the future of all life on the earth.
For now I will simply point you to Hume and Kant, which is the crux of the modern issue. The Kantian formula is: (efficient) cause is not derivable from the concept of a thing, but it is a necessary inference. That is the famous so-called Synthetic a priori.
In the sciences, what happened is Comte took over efficient cause and let it become mathematical function. I.e., he set cause aside, and let function come in. Function is not sensu stricto subject to the Problem of Induction, but rather to a similar but subtly different restraint.
That didn't really solve the problem, but basically, these days, it still stands. Physics speaks of functions, not causes. Since about the twenties of the last century, quantum physics gave up the claim that it could derive everything with respect to the unified development, so-called, of the particle of the quantum states as a 'function of the past'. Randomness, and something worse and more unintelligible than randomness, came in sometime later.
Philosophically speaking, cause became effect, i.e., power. I would say Hobbes gives the crucial statements on effect, which lead into Leibniz and then Nietzsche's Will to Power. Given that this site is mostly keyed in to Analytic Philosophy I leave off giving details that would likely be unappreciated and not understood by those lacking in the requisite training.
That which count as the crucial issues depend greatly on one's background, so far as we regard the issue in terms of what will be interesting to the reader. And not by a higher or more worthy criterion.