After researching for quite some time, all forms of knowledge about properties of concrete particulars I can think of, rely on a comparison with some sort of reference. Some simple examples might be:
- I know a certain object is white because I can compare it to objects of other colors and conclude it is different.
- I know a certain object is 3 meters long because I can compare it to a 1 m reference and realize it is 3 times longer.
- I know it is raining because I can compare today's weather to yesterday's, a sunny day.
Is there any form of knowledge about properties of concrete particulars that can be obtained without the need for a comparison? Is it possible to know about concrete particulars without a reference? Are there any theories, doctrines or philosophers that might help me better understand and answer this problem?