If time as we (or any mechanism we construct) can observe it were infinitely divisible, the uncertainty of the energy of an object would always have to be infinite, because we would be able to observe the particle basically frozen in time.
But we have Heisenberg's inequality. The only way to make delta E times delta t exceed h-bar over 2, if delta t can be arbitrarily small, is for delta E to be arbitrarily large.
I am not sure that makes anything 'mind-dependent', but it does mean that physical reality would not really cohere if we had this power. So if it were really possible, everything we observe would have to be an illusion of some sort.
(But I do think we already had that result from Zeno, and from Kant's Atomicity Antinomy paraphrased by @PhilipKlocking in the first comment. You appear to disagree. So I am not altogether sure I understand the question.)