I do not know of any philosophers who argue that time has a beginning but a slight adjustment to your idea would lead you to Kant and the Perennial philosophy for which time is not metaphysically-real.
This is a different idea but has many of the same consequences. What you seem to be suggesting is that the time is only ever 'Now' and the past and future are only ever theoretical, and this allows your speculation to work. I think you're probably right about this but pretty much on your own among philosophers. To me the Upanishadic or Buddhist explanation of time seems a lot more plausible and it has widespread support and an extensive literature.
It may also be relevant that the consistent-histories interpretation of QM allows for history to be re-written in every moment, but I'm not enough of a physicist to explain this.