During the 19th c. Neokantians proposed that there are two types of science: one that understands and the other that explains or clarifies. This division of 'social' and 'natural' sciences was rejected by positivists who claimed that there is just one standard and a discipline is either up to it and is a science or it is not. This is a still (more or less) dominant view and apparently it creates more problems than it solves.
Renaissance and earlier thinkers relied on analogies which today are seen as superficial: science has become mostly a way of looking for deeper analogies with mathematics providing the necessary tools. Approaching the social world in this way fails to reproduce much of human experience which we still know through empathy or, as it was called earlier, sympathy. When Bruno Latour wrote We have never been modern (1991) he emphasized that a strict division social/natural has never been achieved. And he further stressed that naturalizing everything is equally pernicious and impossible: it is an attempt to restrict science to facts and reproductible results, disqualifying history, Darwinism and much else besides.
Newton saw Geometry as a mechanics in disguise but the plurality of noneuclidean geometries suggested that there is no natural language for physics. So we see contemporary theoretical physics telling fascinating mathematical stories which are actually fictions. Nevertheless their authors like to present them as "true" as they have not been falsified yet i.e proved wrong. This post-positivist stance came to be adopted as it became clear that science could not deal otherwise with universal statements (e.g." all electrons are identical"). but it undermined the whole undertaking - see eg. Baggott J., Farewell to Reality: How Fairytale Physics Betrays the Search for scientific truth, (2013) or Roger Penrose's Fashion, Faith, and Fantasy in the New Physics of the Universe (2016).
Obviously today there are no such abstract things as a scientific method and a further notion of truth which correlates with it, but instead there are lots of high-tech gadgets.