Can anyone tell me if anyone has created a chart or system that matches fallacies with their most closely related counterparts among cognitive biases?
It all depends: when you say chart do you mean something that you can pin up on your wall? Or would a book suffice? If so, then there's a few books that may be of relevance.
For a useful reference that catalogues fallacies and biases, I would recommend the book:
Bennett, B. (2012). Logically fallacious: The ultimate collection of over 300 logical Fallacies (academic edition). eBookIt.com
Unfortunately, it's not particularly useful in characterising the cognitive biases and heuristics that underpin these fallacies. Nevertheless, here is the entry for the bandwagon effect, also known as argumentum ad numeram:
And of the Red Herring fallacy (Ignoratio elenchi):
An alternative reference that I think is more akin to what you're after is this reference:
Pohl, R. (Ed.). (2004). Cognitive illusions: A handbook on fallacies and biases in thinking, judgement and memory. Psychology Press.
Considerably more detail is provided for each entry. The shortcoming here, however, is that it only examines about 20 or so fallacies and biases.