I have a question about time.
What philosophical arguments can be presented for the reality of time?
And I would like sources to be posted too. It is confusing me.
Philosophy Stack Exchange is a question and answer site for those interested in the study of the fundamental nature of knowledge, reality, and existence. It only takes a minute to sign up.Sign up to join this community
Time was real for Newton, it flowed equably and universally. There is a now, a present time, throughout the whole of the cosmos.
Time is also real psychologically, we feel the passage of time.
It was the advent of Einsteins theory of Special Relativity that denoted time to an illusion. This was due to the loss of the principle of simultaneity. This meant that there was not a now, and that all of spacetime was real, and so the passage of time is unreal.
Lee Smolin, a physicist, who once thought time was unreal, has recanted, and has written a whole book where he argues for the reality of time, Time Reborn. I'm in the middle of reading it, so I can't summarise his arguments here.
On the Philosophy of Time
To begin, we outline that the notion of time is very complex.
A realist states that time has existence independent of our minds. An anti-realist states that time is an illusion; the notion of time is impressed upon us by our consciousness.
Immanuel Kant argued that time exists a priori notion that lets us comprehend space. This can be found in his book Critique of Pure Reason.
You can try Being and Time by Martin Heidegger.
McTaggart's 1908 The Unreality of Time covers the anti-realism arguments, thus covering the counter-arguments.
Leibniz stated that monads exist independently of the mind of the observer.
"Time is actually an integral part of the universe. As mentioned earlier, the very linear concept of time is tied into the concept of the Second Law of Thermodynamics, which is seen by many physicists as one of the most important laws in all of physics! Without time as a real property of the universe, the Second Law becomes meaningless.
What is true is that Einstein proved, through his theory of relativity, that time by itself was not an absolute quantity. Rather, time and space are united in a very precise way to form spacetime, and this spacetime is an absolute measure that can be used - again, in a very precise, mathematical way - to determine how different physical processes in different locations interact with each other.
This does not mean that everything is happening simultaneously, however. In fact, Einstein firmly believed - based on the evidence of his equations (such as E = mc2) - that no information can travel faster than the speed of light. Every point in spacetime is limited in the way it can communicate with other regions of spacetime. The idea that everything happens simultaneously is exactly counter to the results that Einstein developed." - https://www.thoughtco.com/does-time-really-exist-2699430
Sources and References:
Other Suggestions and Further Reading: