Where can I find a systematic review of the concept a priori and a posteriori and investigations on their proper distinction? Classical texts are prefered but Kant, Aristotle are excluded. Actually the main accomplishment of Kant was on the part that he saw space and time to be subjective whereas Locke deemed them to be objective; but they both saw them as a prori. So the exact meaning of "a priori" and the word experience itself is required.
If you want a brief characterisation, (a) the a priori and the a posteriori both concern knowledge. They are epistemological concepts. They also centre on propositional knowledge : knowledge that something is the case, knowing that a proposition is true.
And (c) what is generally meant by saying that we have a priori knowledge is that we know the truth of certain propositions without appealing to sense experience as evidence or grounds. We know is 'prior' to or independently of experience. An example might be my knowledge that if A > B, and B > C, then A > C. Of course, without knowing a language (in this case English) which I learn from experience, I cannot recognise this as an a priori proposition. But given my knowledge of English, I don't need to appeal to sense experience to recognise that if A > B, and B > C, then A > C.
In contrast (d) what is generally meant by saying that we have a posteriori knowledge is that we have it only following or dependently on experience. I know that Pu Yi was the last Emperor of China but I know this, not possibly a priori but only by appealing to sense experience as evidence or grounds.
The a priori/ a posteriori distinction has considerable historical significance but following the work of W.V.O. Quine and Saul Kripke it is not the sharp blade - the fixed, clear and incontrovertible distinction - it was thought to be.
David W. Benfield, 'The A Priori--A Posteriori Distinction', Philosophy and Phenomenological Research, Vol. 35, No. 2 (Dec., 1974), pp. 151-166.
W.V.O. Quine, 'Two Dogmas of Empiricism', From A Logical Point of View, 1954.
Saul A. Kripke, Naming and Necessity, 1960.
Paul K. Moser, A Priori Knowledge (Oxford Readings in Philosophy), ISBN 10: 0198750846 / ISBN 13: 9780198750840 Published by Oxford University Press, 1987. (Contains discussion of a posteriori knowledge as well.)