Assuming determinism, does this imply that feelings of pride, guilt and remorse are illusions? If we are not truly responsible for our actions, as determinism implies, how can we feel pride in our accomplishments or regret our mistakes?
We need to divide the emotions. Those you mention all assume that we are free agents who have voluntarily acted in ways that justify pride, guilt, remorse. If determinism is true, it is not the emotions that are illusory, since they really occur. What is illusory is our belief that we have voluntarily acted in ways that justify pride, guilt, remorse. As mental states the emotions are real; as moral phenomena we are mistaken about the non-existent voluntaristic psychology behind them.
By contrast ...
In the case of emotions such as fear, disgust or surprise we do not assume voluntariness. They are on any account involuntary states of mind. I do not decide to fear the snarling dog about to attack. Nor do I have any choice about feeling disgust at certain odours. Or about surprise when I open a letter and find a million dollar check. I cannot see that determinism could expose any illusions here. Automatically I feel fear; automatically I feel disgust; automatically I am surprised. I do not suppose myself to be a free agent in regard to these emotions and so determinism cannot correct any mistakes I have made about my status as a free agent, since I have made none.
If we have information about emotions they are exactly what we know they are. Illusion is a fallacy approach because it mean something that by definition is different from what it is. In other words we can remove entropy from the question "what emotion we have" and receive the corresponding information. Before to receive the information the emotion is uncertain so any possible answer is imagination, after we receive the information the emotion is certain (probability = 1).
Assuming determinism is true these emotions of pride, guilt and remorse give us completely false information about our moral responsibility. However, these emotions are real states of mind. We actually have them. They are facts, but completely unreliable facts. But if they are not reliable, what purpose do they serve? Why do we experience them at all?
This situation forces a choice upon us between two conflicting ideas. Either the empirical evidence of our emotions is completely unreliable and must be rejected or the idea of determinism, which is after all only an abstraction, is false. The very existence of this choice is a defeator for determinism which has no use for choices and so determinism should be rejected.
This goes beyond emotions. Under determinism all of our cognitive faculties are unreliable as well. There is no point having them. Our very discussion here is pointless. We can’t change anyone’s mind not even our own. Because of this, it seems that the only choice that preserves rationality is again to reject determinism. If we accept determinism we are admitting that our cognitive faculties are unreliable and we are irrational.
Here is the question: “If determinism is true, are emotions like pride, guilt, and remorse illusory?”
Given determinism, these emotions are completely unreliable. We have them, but they give us false information. That we have these emotions, however, is problematic in a deterministic universe. They serve no purpose. This raises a doubt whether our emotions really are completely unreliable. If they are even partially reliable, which is how we experience them, then determinism is false. Based on this empirical evidence we can reject determinism.