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Are there any philosophies still claiming the existence of Absolute entities? By Absolute, I mean permanent and independent of cause and effect, such as Plato's One or Forms in general.

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Yes. According to the philpapers survey it's quite a lot actually, so around at least 39% lean towards platonism (or existence of abstract objects/properties) and 20% believe in it. So it's fair to say that the position is at least popular with anglophone analytic philosophers.

Like the other comment points out, non-natural moral realists are an example. Another would be belief in abstract mathematical facts (opposed to nominalism).

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  • That links gives even more than I asked for, thank you! :) – Ilya Grushevskiy Feb 21 '18 at 15:56
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In contemporary philosophy, Slavoj Zizek operates with the notion of Absolute, though he talks about the "Fragile Absolute". For Zizek, the Platonic Idea as a universal self-manifesting truth has a fragile status, it manifests itself as a temporary event that restuctures the symbolic reality. See his book, Event, he has a chapter on Plato where he develops this theory in detail.

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