Truth is one of the most basic foundations of both philosophy and science, even though people may quibble about its precise definition.
Though most people probably consider truth a virtue, some would excuse or even praise lying under certain circumstances, including the following:
- "White lies" (e.g. telling someone who isn't attractive that they are to avoid hurting their feelings)
- "Crisis lying" (e.g. lying if it's the only way to escape an unjust prison sentence or to save the lives of one million innocent people)
- Tit-for-Tat lying (e.g. someone cheats you out of a million dollars by lying, so you get your money back by lying in return)
- Wartime lying (e.g. a general sending out the message that he's going to attack Location A when he's really planning on attacking Location B)
Do most notable philosophers accept such lies as virtuous or at least acceptable, or do they condemn ALL lies?
If you know of any philosophers or philosophical schools that have really explored this topic, it would help if you could mention them.