A TERMINOLOGICAL POINT
I would link fairness and unfairness to agency, particularly intentional agency. When someone says, 'The universe isn't fair, why should she get cancer at 18 ?', there is no literal unfairness. The universe isn't an agent who decides who is and who isn't to get cancer. Her cancer is certainly unfortunate, and outside the norm for contracting cancer, but no-one is to blame - certainly not the world as any kind of agent. Her cancer is only unfair if you see the universe as not applying the same rules impartially and equally to each person. No such scenario applies.
Even if unfairness does under some definition prevail in the world, say because on the social side practices, institutions and procedures do not distribute benefits and burdens impartially - hence indefensible differences of pay, hence racial discrimination, hence famine in a world of plenty - that is no reason not to do what we can to act fairly and promote fairness if we see it as a good. If I donate to a charity that supports the homeless, I do not stop my direct debit because there is far more unnecessary and indefensible homelesssness than I can ever prevent. If I have gotten the money to provide a roof over one homeless person's head, that is still right even though thousands remain homeless. I wouldn't call this kind of action anomalous - many people engage in it.
Not a criticism - just setting out the terminology as I understand it.
PHILOSOPHERS AND FAIRNESS
But you ask about philosophers and fairness. John Rawls has a famous paper on 'Justice as Fairness', The Philosophical Review, vol. 57, 1958. 164-194. This contains the entire kernel of Rawls' greatly longer, A Theory of Justice, Oxford : OUP, 1972. Paper reprinted in John Rawls : Collected Papers, ed. S. Freeman, Harvard : Harvard University Press, 1999, 47-72.
Some books :
Paul Woodruff, The Ajax Dilemma: Justice, Fairness, and Rewards. ISBN 10: 0199356882 ISBN 13: 9780199356881. Published by Oxford University Press, 2014. [Much about CEOs' pay but far from limited to that.]
James, Aaron, Fairness in Practice: A Social Contract for a Global Economy (Oxford Political Philosophy). ISBN 10: 0199846154 / ISBN 13: 9780199846153.
Published by Oxford University Press, U.S.A., 2012.
Stephen T. Asma, Against Fairness. ISBN 10: 0226029867 / ISBN 13: 9780226029863
Published by The University of Chicago Press, United States, 2012.
P. Voice, Rawls Explained: From Fairness to Utopia. ISBN 10: 0812696808 / ISBN 13: 9780812696806. Published by Open Court Publishing Co ,U.S., United States, 2011.
Kolm, Serge-Christophe, Macrojustice : the political economy of fairness. ISBN 10: 0521835038 / ISBN 13: 9780521835039. Published by Cambridge : Cambridge University Press, 2004.
Kaplow, Louis; Shavell, Steven, Fairness Versus Welfare. ISBN 10: 0674006224 / ISBN 13: 9780674006225. Published by Harvard University Press, Cambridge, MA, 2002.
J. Rawls, Justice as Fairness: A Restatement. ISBN 10: 0674005112 / ISBN 13: 9780674005112. Published by HARVARD UNIVERSITY PRESS, United States, 2001. (Much expanded and updated version of article.)
G. Klosko, The Principle of Fairness and Political Obligation (Studies in Social, Political, and Legal Philosophy). ISBN 10: 0847677184 / ISBN 13: 9780847677184. Published by Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1992 Rowman & Littlefield Publishers, 1992.