I'm reading William Charlton's commentary on Aristotle's Physics I and II, and I am having trouble with the following:
Aristotle recognizes four main "ways in which a thing might be said" i.e. types of grounds in which the same expression might be applied to different things...
First, different things might be called something on the same grounds, "in accordance with one thing "(Met, Z 1030b3) ...
Second, things may be called something because they exceed or fall short of some norm (Phys. III 200b29)
Third, things might be called something by analogy (E.N. I 1096b28, cf. Met. Omega, 1048a37)
Finally, things may be called something on the ground that they "are related to a single thing" (Met, Γ 1003a33-4) in various ways.
I'm having trouble understanding the third and the fourth ways.