We have a strong impulse towards seeing cycles, giving decades identities with a rise and fall, similarly with generations, centuries (fin de siecle is an idiom that reflects the idea of an inevitable cycle in them), and longer. Many a cient cultures saw history as cyclical, generally without evidence. So we should be wary of our bias toward seeing causes and patterns.
Hegel, and Marx, took up the idea of a historical dialectic, which could certainly manifest as successive turns towards the left and right, each integrating previous turns into a new synthesis; this is like a pendulum, but also accounts for change. Marxists held that a definite analysis of history could be derived scientifically from looking at events in the past. This is obviously rubbish, and their tenacity in holding this view shaped Popper's work on political theory and the problem of demarcating science, and made speculative philosophies of history disreputable. In general, that means people want quite evidence-based analysis of history, that at least attempts to be impartial, and this has tended to see study of historical cycles and historical causation move out of philosophy.
Social cycle theories of the 19th C gave rise to sociology https://en.m.wikipedia.org/wiki/Social_cycle_theory
Kuhn looked at the development of scientific revolutions, in practice, and devloped the idea of paradigm shifts between them. So philosophy of science.
Demographic shifts, from the hunter-gatberers to agrarian stone age revolution, to the black death, to the baby boom, to the Arab Spring, have driven social changes which have certainly extended to political and economic changes, which indirectly shape philosophies.
There is a startlingly regular cycle to international trade, driven by successive industrial revolutions
As well as the dialectic, there are spiral and helical models, that also attempt to explain how a cyclical change can still be going somewhere. Otherwise a steady state would be implied, like the ancients' eons or kalpas of progress and then decay. Our bias has been away from stasis, towards the 'manifest destiny' of progress - and arguably is now shifting towards only imagining dystopias for the future. Used warily, consideration of cycles could perhaps be an antidote to these.