Consider the following sentences; how would each be symbolized?:

"Kate loves John" vs. "Kate loves cheese"

^(here, I'm trying to understand the difference between a relation between two individuals vs. a relation between an individual and a class of things)

"Jane has tattoos" vs. "Jane is tatted"

^(here, I'm trying to understand whether terms like 'has' can be expressed both as relations and as simple predicates)

1 Answer 1


First of all, you need a binary preidcate Loves(x,y).

With individuals, you need individual constants : Kate and John.

Thus, the first sentence will be :

Loves(Kate, John).

For the second one, we can use a unary predicate : Cheese(x) to mean that "x is a Cheese".

Thus, the second sentence will be :

∀x (Cheese (x) → Loves (Kate,x)).

Regarding the second example, I'll suggest :


We do not need an "has" predicate

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