I recently took an introductory history course and there we visited a lot of modern philosophers and thinkers and briefly studied their influence on the society and the influence of their life conditions on them. However, I am looking for a book that introduces philosophical views (like an introduction to philosophy) more in depth but with an eye on the (political, economical, natural) conditions. For example, the book Evil in Modern Thought: An Alternative History of Philosophy by Susan Neiman starts with the Lisbon Earthquake in the intro, but then separates from the historical context (from my uneducated view point). I am looking for answers to questions like "why we even came up with such ideas?" rather than merely knowing the idea itself. I would appreciate if someone could introduce a source that satisfies my need (or offer an alternative standpoint if I'm thinking quite wrong).
Bertrand Russell: A History of Western Philosophy, 3 Volumes. It analyzes everything from the ancient Greeks to Nietzche, with the socio-political context included.
Marxist Philosophers in general talk a lot about the socio-economic aspects, but they are sometimes too ideological.
The philosophy of mathematics is very well developed, since it links with the foundations of mathematics. Russel, Wittgenstein, Frege, Quine, Brouwer etc. have made great contributions to set theory, logic and other topics in the foundations of mathematics.
Even psychologists have made great contributions to philosophical thought, Freud being the most famous example perhaps. Jung, Anna Freud are the other greats in this category.
For natural philosophy and the history of science, I would say it is the least developed of the lot. Darwin and evolutionary theorists are good regarding biology but physics and chemistry have been under-analyzed.