(English is not my native language so I probably won't be able correctly to express the question... please bear with me).
From time to time, I've heard or read that some of the social differences one can see between Western Europe and the USA can ultimately be traced back to different, somewhat opposed, philosophical "beliefs" about the world which originated in the late 1800s with Western Europe embracing it while the USA stuck to a previous view of the world.
I seem to remember that it may be related to the philosophical views of Kant or a later philosopher.
Equivalently I also remember that a similar argument was made in the field of psychology with Western Europe embracing Freudian ideas while the USA somewhat put him aside and chose a later philosopher/psychologist.
So, does anyone here have any idea what I am referring to? I've read about it multiple times over my life but I just can't seem to remember exactly what it was.