Walking down the streets I heard:
Measuring means comparing.
I was shocked. Why $A$ is better\bigger\higher\etc than $B$?
It becomes somehow obvious: that simple idea shapes part of our reality.
In what respect to scientific knowledge, it explains almost everything. There are few things not involving a measure in science. Maybe it was invented for communication purposes. Now we've created powerful measuring instruments, on a beginning it was enough to compare: why is $A$ taller than $B$?
But measuring is not all. We can get knowledge simply resuming observations. For example: all objects fall down to the earth. This doesn't involve a measure. Also we could say, if some wood produce heat, this wood should. This is an analogy. Analogy may come from old lands, and interestingly, at least in my perspective, it is related to metaphor, and may have a common root with poetry and language.
The question is related to the evolution of thought.
Is there something like caregories of thought which almost all we think and do depends on? Do we work mainly by analogy and comparison? Is there any study on it? Is it hereditary from monkeys?
In other words: Is the way we relate to the world, mainly by comparison and analogy, the only way? Or is something else out there?
There are many questions but they are like 'one question'.
You might notice I'm quite puzzled.
What I'm looking for is a recommendation of some author touching this issues; or maybe you can help directly.