I'm currently planning a research project which tracks the development of atomic theory in the physical sciences (though mainly physics since that's my subject). In the last section I want to discuss some of the key problems in philosophy of science with specific reference to atomic theory, briefly discussing epistemological debates within philosophy of science and discussing how science can relate to metaphysics.
Does anyone know of any sources that discuss philosophy of science in 'atomic theory' terms? Beyond classical antiquity, that is. This includes what physicists have had to say about the topic as well as philosophers of science. As far as I know, Ernst Mach had an instrumentalist's view of atomic theory rather than a realist one. It would be good to be able to discuss the realist/instrumentalist traditions within the field of physics.