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I was recently skimming through Nagels "The Structure of Science", and I wonder if there are other books that go through the philosophy of science through a logical point of view; That is, I am looking for books that go through the logical foundation of academic fields (not necessarily just natural science).

If this question is broad, I'll split it into two separate ones (one for natural science and one for social science)...

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    For an overview, see Scientific Method with bibliography: Carnap, Hempel, Popper and more recent authors. See also Scientific Explanation: Nagel, Barithwaite, Achinstein, Cartwright, Salmon, Van Fraassen. – Mauro ALLEGRANZA Sep 25 '18 at 13:39
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    "The Logic of Scientific Discovery" by Popper. Also look into Thomas Kuhn as an anti-thesis to Popper – amphibient Sep 26 '18 at 18:14
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You should look for books about probability theories, it will be more algebra. For example, "Probability Theory: The Logic of Science" (9780521592710): E. T. Jaynes, G. Larry Bretthorst: Books.

  • That book is a textbook on statistics and thus doesn't answer my question. My question goes much deeper than that; It's about the logic that, for instance, allows us to use statistics as a tool (among other things). – Avatrin Sep 28 '18 at 8:30
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Karl Popper - The logic of scientific discovery - it is a classic book about methodology and Philosophy of science. The concept of falsiability is crucial to understand modern epistemological debates.

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There's The Logic of Reliable Inquiry by Kevin Kelly, which develops a formal learning theory framework to address philosophical problems about scientific inquiry.

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