Any English expression could be viewed from the perspective of natural language. Here is Wikipedia's description of natural language:
In neuropsychology, linguistics, and the philosophy of language, a natural language or ordinary language is any language that has evolved naturally in humans through use and repetition without conscious planning or premeditation. Natural languages can take different forms, such as speech or signing. They are distinguished from constructed and formal languages such as those used to program computers or to study logic.
The content of the quote, "Not everything that is worth it pays off, not everything that pays off is worth it.", refers to "worth". This may have relevance to "value". Here are two surveys of the idea of value from philosophical perspectives.
Here is Mark Schroeder discussing values:
...“value theory” designates the area of moral philosophy that is concerned with theoretical questions about value and goodness of all varieties — the theory of value.
Here is how Patrick Bondy describes instrumental and final value:
An object (or state, property, etc.) is instrumentally valuable if and only if it brings about something else that is valuable. An object is finally valuable if and only if it’s valuable for its own sake.
Both of these sources, the Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy and the Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy, provide detailed surveys of philosophy which may provide what you are looking for with respect to this question what philosophy or branch of philosophy might be most interested in the perspective on value expressed in the provided quote.
Bondy, Patrick, "Value, Epistemic", Internet Encyclopedia of Philosophy https://www.iep.utm.edu/ep-value/
Schroeder, Mark, "Value Theory", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Fall 2016 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/fall2016/entries/value-theory/.
Wikipedia, "Natural language" https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Natural_language