The text near this quote seems unambiguous enough. This "almost new domain of dangerous knowledge" is Nietzsche's own conception about the Will to power. He acknowledges that the role of this (almost) new factor in human affairs
has been revealed to him through psychology but makes (almost rightly) the claim
"nobody had yet harboured the notion the notion of psychology as the Morphology and development-doctrine of the Will to power, as I conceive of it"
The "most strangest and embarrassing hypothesis" in this approach is
[to] regard even the emotions of hatred, envy, covetousness, and imperiousness as life-conditioning emotions, as factors which must be present, fundamentally and essentially, in the general economy of life (which must, therefore, be further developed if life is to be further developed).
The whole passage ends with a full blown panegyric for the discipline
psychology shall once more be recognized as the queen of the sciences, for whose service and equipment the other sciences exist. For psychology is once more the path to the fundamental problems