Are political "ism"-beliefs artificial? But some of them must exist, so how can they be measured?
Over and over again, I find concepts such as:
to be confusing. Because I consider that the beliefs are "artificial". One could take their premises, exchange/modify them slightly, and it would be a different view, but with a similar kind of "truth".
"Chauvinism is a form of extreme patriotism"
"-ism is a form of minimal patriotism"
and you have two conflicting views, but the "truth" or epistemology rests on about the same level.
However, since some belief systems certainly must exist (how can people act without any belief systems?), then how is the "accuracy" of e.g. such isms resolved? What can the accuracy measure base on?
Sometimes I have the idea that some political beliefs are not formulated for informative purposes, but for manipulation. That is, they attempt to "gain favor". Then they could be compared with dogmas, doctrines etc. Rather than e.g. "accurate social or historical interpretation".