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Background

There is an article in The Conversation that attempts to disprove the notion that people are "entitled to their opinions." That is, people have a right to believe whatever they wish. I think this article is interesting and worth a read. However, I have trouble accepting the strength of its argument. I think this passage sums it up:

But if ‘entitled to an opinion’ means ‘entitled to have your views treated as serious candidates for the truth’ then it’s pretty clearly false. And this too is a distinction that tends to get blurred.

This makes sense to me. If we define "entitled to an opinion" in this way, then it is trivial that not everyone has the expertise necessary to form an opinion that is a serious candidate for the truth. A vaccines-cause-autism promoter with no medical credentials is not a candidate for the truth like a doctor is.


The problem

However, how can I disprove that there exists an inherent privilege (an entitlement) to believe whatever you want? It would be an argument from ignorance to say that you cannot prove that there exists such a privilege, so such a privilege does not exist.

My approach was to use an indisputable example: 1+1=2.

(0) Let us assume that anyone has the right to have any opinion.

(1) If it is permissible to have any opinion, then anything can be debated.

(2) It is impossible to dispute 1+1=2 because it has been proven.

(3) Things that are indisputably true––that simply are––cannot be debated, so there cannot be differing opinions on them.

(4) This is a contradiction of (0) and (1) (which follows from (0)).

This proof feels flimsy, but I cannot pin point exactly where the weak link is.

Where is the weak link in my argument? Does an alternative, stronger argument exist?


I am new to this site, so any recommendations (especially for tags) would be much appreciated!

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    The ethics of belief is an actively researched subject that deals with the question you are asking, that article will probably be worth reading. – Not_Here Dec 12 '18 at 4:05
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    Also, you probably want to change "any opinion is valid" to "it is permissible to have any opinion", because you're talking about ethics and whether it is right or wrong to have an opinion, not logic and whether or not the opinions are syntactically well formed arguments. Validity is a formal concept in logic, we often misuse it in every day speech when talking about arguments, but in this case what you are saying could be confused with it's formal definition. – Not_Here Dec 12 '18 at 4:40
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    And the problem is probably with (1). Why is it the case that you are allowed to move to everything being debatable from it being permissible for people to have whatever opinion they want? The point is there is a hidden assumption in there, and I think it's something like "whether or not something is debatable depends on whether or not two people hold conflicting beliefs on it" and I think that is rejectable. In place of it, someone could argue that things are only debatable when there isn't a matter of fact about their truth. If that assumption is taken instead, (1) doesn't work. – Not_Here Dec 12 '18 at 4:51
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    Usually it is the proof that is in debate, once something is proven that usually ends the debate. So a more accurate formulation would be "you are not entitled to an opinion in conflict with proof. As for what constitutes sufficient proof: some would say it's a matter of opinion, some would say the earth is flat. – christo183 Dec 12 '18 at 8:09
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    A vaccines-cause-autism promoter with no medical credentials is not a candidate for the truth like a doctor is. This statement is an 'appeal to authority', without consideration of bias on the part of 'professionals' who are after all, corporate employees who stand to gain or profit from the commercial promotion of commodities or merchandise such as pharmaceuticals. – Bread Dec 12 '18 at 11:11
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Welcome to this SE, Daniel. I think the problem with the argument is what you are trying to prove:

how can I disprove that there exists an inherent privilege (an entitlement) to believe whatever you want?

Even Patrick Stokes agrees that people are entitled to their opinions. He writes:

If “Everyone’s entitled to their opinion” just means no-one has the right to stop people thinking and saying whatever they want, then the statement is true, but fairly trivial.

What Stokes argues against is something else:

But if ‘entitled to an opinion’ means ‘entitled to have your views treated as serious candidates for the truth’ then it’s pretty clearly false.

People will take their own views as "serious candidates for the truth", at least as far as they are concerned, or they wouldn't have those views.

What I understand Stokes to be arguing for could be paraphrased as people are entitled to their own opinions, but other people don't have to agree with them. That is, those other people don't have to consider those views "serious candidates for the truth".


Patrick Stokes, "No, you’re not entitled to your opinion", The Conversation https://theconversation.com/no-youre-not-entitled-to-your-opinion-9978

  • Is your answer saying that there is no way to counter someone “I have a right to think whatever I want?” I would think that there does not exist such a right: what entity or set of rules would bestow a universal right for anyone to believe anything? – Daniel Dec 12 '18 at 17:43
  • @Daniel That is Stokes position. I suspect there may be some legal constraints to what we may be permitted to say, but barring them, the entity that bestows this universal right is our ability to think and believe at all. We may disagree with someone else's opinion and not share it. We then have a right to our opinion, to think differently from that person. If we have that right, so does that other person. – Frank Hubeny Dec 12 '18 at 17:52
  • Does that mean that because people can do it, people have the right to do it? Anyone can murder, but most people do have that right. – Daniel Dec 12 '18 at 17:54
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    @Not_Here The problem is with downvotes without explanation, because: there is no indication of how the post might be improved and no way of being sure that a downvoter understood the post in the first place. So kudos for explaining your position. – christo183 Dec 14 '18 at 13:08
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    @Not_Here I guess it is peculiar to Philosophy SE. People are invested in not only improving their own faculties of reason and expression, but also in making sure they correctly understand the other, and are in return correctly understood. ;) – christo183 Dec 14 '18 at 13:33
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Welcome, Daniel!

When it comes to opinions (beliefs, perspectives, faiths, etc.), the issue isn't entitlement; it's boundaries. This distinction has bearing on whether a simple discussion of opinions will stick to words or come to blows.

There's no conflict as long as we:

(1) hold only ourselves to our opinions;

(2) respect others' rights to hold only themselves to their opinions; and

(3) consider identifying opinions as such: "In my opinion...", "I believe...", "From my perspective", "My chosen faith teaches me that...", etc. (See comments below for an alternative solution.)

However, if I try to hold you to my own belief, I'm effectively trespassing onto your private property.

All of the above presupposes that the statement in question is truly an opinion, etc. (i.e., unprovable and subject to boundaries) and not actually a fact (i.e, provable and not subject to boundaries).

  • The issue w/ (3) is that for most mature adults it should be a 'given' that boundaries do exist w/ regard to opinions (vs. facts, which should always be referenced whenever they are not self-evident). It should be easily enough understood what is or is not, logically speaking, 'opinion' or 'belief'. Much of what most people assert online (even here, judging from the many differing schools of philosophical thought), is opinion. Therefore I see no practical use in littering our speech w/ redundant qualifiers to nearly every statement we make as individuals w/ the right to our own opinions. – Bread Dec 12 '18 at 10:45
  • One person's litter is another's protective padding. I agree that "for most mature adults it should be a 'given'...", but there are a very vocal few for whom it isn't. I include (3) for those whose voices assail the rest of us. – user34765 Dec 12 '18 at 11:17
  • That's understandable. It hurts though, if you're trying to raise rather than lower standards of social or scholastic conduct. Some people would call it, 'stooping to their level'. For example, as a parent I wouldn't raise my children that way or expect my close family members to talk that way. I would teach them that there is an allowable kind of understanding that may be purely tacit. For ease of communication. – Bread Dec 12 '18 at 12:02
  • Psychologically and socially speaking, demanding qualifiers for every opinion which ought to be understood to be opinion, is an unnecessary pressure which may be taken as a violation of personal boundaries and a hindrance to the basic human right to free speech. I wouldn't treat people I care about in that manner. Instead, I would allow them to voice their opinions, and if they should happen to become too overbearing with their opinions, such as not allowing me to disagree with them -- then and only then would I politely but assertively remind them that their statements are just opinions. – Bread Dec 12 '18 at 12:15
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    I have edited (3) based on your comments, Bread. Please note that my answer contains no demands, rules, or expectations of any kind. I included (3) to address the surprising difficulty in conversing with people who express opposition to coexistence with those having different beliefs (e.g., religious). The method I cited has worked very well for me on multiple occasions on various sites. I admire how easily your way of handling this situation works for you. Unfortunately, for personal psychological reasons, it would not work for me; bummer. – user34765 Dec 12 '18 at 13:11

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