I am going to be doing an Independent Study with one of my professors, and I am obligated (due to the professor's expertise) to choose a philosopher prior to the 1900s.

Were there any philosophers that did not assume a dualistic model of consciousness prior to the 1900s?

  • 1
    Pretty much everybody, other than Descartes, either assumed a non-dualisitic model, in most cases idealistic, or dismissed the question as empirically vacuous. What you seem to want is rather a materialistic view of mind. The sense of "emergent" you use is a recent invention, and I am not sure you intend what it means, in any case, the reducible/emergent dichotomy is largely moot before 1900. You can look at mechanistic materialists like La Mettrie, the author of Man a Machine, and Descartes's nemesis.
    – Conifold
    Jan 13, 2019 at 23:23
  • @Conifold I do indeed intend to use "emergent" in the sense of the generally accepted definition of most modern philosophers.
    – Sermo
    Jan 13, 2019 at 23:29
  • Before 1900 philosophers did not distinguish between reduction and supervenience, it dates to Morgan in 1920-s, so you will not get a chance to use it, although you could try emergentists like Mill (he was an empiricist though). See also Wolfe on Diderot and Shofield's book on British materialists.
    – Conifold
    Jan 13, 2019 at 23:45
  • Many in East and West. For the East, see either archive.org/details/IndianPhilosophyACriticalSurvey or here consciouslivingfoundation.org/ebooks/13/… Jan 14, 2019 at 5:30


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