I've read the Tractatus and am now working my way through Investigations, and I have a few questions about their relationship to one another. Obviously I've heard that the latter is critical of the claims made in the former (as well as claims made by the "logical positivist" school more generally, a term I still don't quite understand either), but how exactly does Wittgenstein justify his critiques?
For example, in aphorism 23 of Investigations, W enumerates multiple examples of language games - "Giving orders and obeying them, describing the appearance of an object, ..." etc - and then says that "it is interesting to compare the multiplicity of the tools in language and the ways they are used, the multiplicity of kinds of word and sentence, with what logicians have said about the structure of language (Including the author of Tractatus Logico-Philosophicus)". What specifically about the "structure of language" in his earlier work is he trying to undermine here by demonstrating this "multiplicity"? If the Tractatus can be seen as essentially an attempt to systematize and make unambiguous the use of language, i.e. to make it as logical as possible (feel free to challenge this interpretation), how does the multiplicity of language games in our actual language challenge this general project? How does this multiplicity prove that our actual language cannot still be mapped onto some more general "ur-language" that avoids ambiguities, i.e. one of pure logic? In other words, is it possible that rather than being in conflict, the Tractatus and the Investigations are really doing two different things -- the former describing how or language should function in order to be as unambiguous as possible, and the latter describing how our actual language works, perhaps with all its illogical and nonsensical elements? Related to this question, doesn't the fact that Wittgenstein is able to clarify the differences between certain types of language games using language suggest that there might be such an "ur-language", or language with which all other language games can be described with?
Sorry if my questions seem vague, but I don't really know how to ask them in another way. I'd be happy to try and clarify my thoughts if needed/asked. Thanks!