# Logic : steps to prove valid reasoning [closed]

I am very new to this and I can't figure out the steps to prove that these reasonings are valid. Thank you for your help.

``````p
¬r
p → (q→r)
___________
¬q
``````

``````(¬p ∨ ¬q) → r
p
q
__________
¬r
``````

``````p → (r ∨ q)
(q ∨ s ) → t
r → s
p ∨ r
__________
t
``````

## closed as off-topic by Eliran, Graham Kemp, Jishin Noben, Alexander Gegg, curiousdanniiApr 7 at 7:26

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• How have you tried to show these? It might also help to know what textbook they came from. If you do not have a proof checker, you might try this one: proofs.openlogicproject.org – Frank Hubeny Mar 25 at 22:40
• This is unanswerable unless you specify the rules you're allowed to use. Also please say what you have tried. – Eliran Mar 25 at 23:55
• I don't have any specification about the rules, I guess all rules are allowed ? – MMM Mar 26 at 0:01

Hint for 1, using Natural Deduction rules.

1) p --- premise

2) ¬r --- premise

3) p → (q → r) --- premise

4) q --- assumed [a]

5) (q → r) --- from 1) and 3) by (→E)

6) r --- from 4) and 5) by (→E)

7) contradiction with 2) and 6)

8) ¬q --- from 4) and 7), by (⊥E), discharging assumption [a].

Regarding 2, check it with truth table.

Regarding 3, use "nested" (∨E).