Recently, I had an interdisciplinary discussion with some friends about Industry 4.0, internet of things,...which brought up the question, which kind of academic revolutions apart from industrial revolutions have happened so far. Unfortunately, we are all working in STEM and not humanities and are no experts in philsophy of science or sociology.

Google scholar reveals that the term "academic revolution" exists and is broadly used in scientific literature. But, even on wikipedia, I could not find a good overview of the timeline and kind of academic revolutions that happened so far or are thought of by scientists in humanities.

Intuitively and discussed in our group were:

  • Gutenberg printing press invention

  • International postal service

  • ...

  • Internet

  • ...

  • Artificial intelligence/"singularity" (by Ray Kurzweil)

  • ...

I hope there are also some non-STEM users and scientists here who can possibly shed some light on this or link a good review article or website.

Personally I'm more interested in the methodological and scientific indication of an academic revolution (e.g. strong increase in exchange of scientists between countries and disciplinaries, interdisciplinary referencing, number of research articles, open science, peer review changes etc...). Some of those phenomenological academic discruptions can probably be quite well recognized by bibliometric analysis as in a recent question here about "global number of publications over time". But my short googling left it unclear to me, if all of above bullet points are actually agreed on as single academic revolutions by the research community. Also the changing interdependency of universities - industry - government seems to play a bigger role in identifying and arguing for an academic revolution. But apart from technological disruptions, of course also financial disruptions of the funding of academia is an important factor as well as the historical cultural disruptions like the french revolution or the cold war. In the end I would like to be able to extrapolate from a good answer on this question and the past revolutions, which future academic revolutions are to come or if artifical intelligence is the next and last one thought of.

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    I'm not sure your question is about the philosophy of science, rather than notable advances is human knowledge and civilization. And that is largely opinion based. If i'm incorrect.. could you try and summarise your question more succinctly? Are you asking primarily about how increased ease of communication affects science? – Richard Mar 27 '19 at 22:56
  • @Richard no the question is not opinion based, but what single points of progresses in academical system and structure have happened, like for industrial revolution (steam machine, assembly line,..., industry 4.0). The term "academic revolution" is quite common – user48953094 Mar 27 '19 at 23:01
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    "academic revolutions apart from industrial revolutions" ??? What do you mean with "academic revolution" ? It is hard to believe that industrial rev was an acdemic one, in any reasonable sense of "academic". – Mauro ALLEGRANZA Mar 28 '19 at 9:03
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    See Thomas Kuhn's "The Structure of Scientific Revolutions". It is considered to be a foundational work on the nature of scientific 'Paradigms' how they become accepted and the anomalies which eventually see them overturned by a 'new' revolution. He also describes the status of 'normal science'. That is the work that is done to 'flesh' out the details required to support a new paradigm or revolution. CS All the Best! – Charles M Saunders Mar 28 '19 at 15:20
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    The closest thing I could find is Harnad's Post-Gutenberg Galaxy: The Fourth Revolution in the Means of Production of Knowledge (the obvious allusions are to McLuhan's Gutenberg Galaxy, Marx's historiosophy, and the four industrial revolutions). Hopefully, you can get some more by tracing the references. – Conifold Mar 29 '19 at 0:32

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