Thomas D. Williams and Jan Olof Bengtsson describe the origin of personalism in the following way:
Personalism in the sense of a distinct philosophy or worldview focusing on the full, accumulated import of the concept of the person, however, emerged only in the context of the broad critical reaction against what can be called the various impersonalistic philosophies which came to dominate the Enlightenment and Romanticism in the form of rationalistic and romantic forms of pantheism and idealism, from Spinoza to Hegel.
They mention the following:
Yet while most personalists are theists, belief in God is not necessary to all personalist philosophies, and some profess an atheist personalism.
I may have missed it in this article, but which modern philosophers could be described as professing an atheist personalism?
Williams, Thomas D. and Bengtsson, Jan Olof, "Personalism", The Stanford Encyclopedia of Philosophy (Winter 2018 Edition), Edward N. Zalta (ed.), URL = https://plato.stanford.edu/archives/win2018/entries/personalism/.
From the comments:
- McTaggart fits the description. Perhaps existentialists including Heidegger, Schopenhauer and Nietzsche do as well. Thanks to Conifold.
- Adding references Gordon provided about Personalism: (1) Gaudium et Spes, (2) Evgueny Lampert (3) Emmanuel Mounier.
- Edgar Sheffield Brightman. "Personalism" in Ferm, Vergilius History of Philosophical Systems. Thanks to Conifold.