If you'd ask people about what's important to them, you'd get answers that might differ from their actions. For example: someone who states that playing soccer is important to them, yet always skips practice and finds excuses to miss the match. Or someone who says waking up at 4AM is important to them, but never wakes up before 6AM.
I believe soccer is not that important to the person from the example above, else they'd be there. If waking up at 4AM was truly important to someone, they'd do it. I don't believe someone who willingly neglects their children or spouse truly loves them.
Under what school of thought do we determine what is important to people based on their actions, instead of what they say is important to them?
Edit: Taking this a bit further, we might judge ideologies or ideas by their actions. For example: Communism claims that it cares about the working class, yet often when Communists come into power we see disregard for the working class. Or if we judge Catholicism for the amount of child abuse it has caused, as opposed to someone claiming that's not what the Catholic Church is about. Could this be framed under consequentialism?