I am new here and I am studying the philosophical implications of Quantum Mechanics. I read somewhere that QM and determinism are mutually exclusive and that QM involve a number of philosophers to think that nature is probabilistic. Is this true? And what are the theories or physical laws (in QM)that state that nature is probabilistic? In other words, where is the modal aspect in QM?
The basic formula of QM in its most simple form is Schrödinger's equation. That's a linear differential equation like other differential equations from classical Newtonian mechanics or Maxwell's electrodynamics.
The distinctiveness of the Schrödinger equation: The equation describes in a deterministic way the time development of a probability.
According to the Copenhagen interpretation QM is a complete theory. Hence in QM we cannot do better than deriving a probability for the outcome of our experiments. And there is no other theory which derives more precise predictions than QM - also Bohm's theory does not.
I consider a good introduction to the Copenhagen interpretation - without any mathematical formalism - the book
"Werner Heisenberg: Physics and Philosophy".
Heisenberg is one of the founders of QM.