I'm hearing that predicate logic replaces term logic, but teaching of predicated logic assumes knowledge of term logic. What are essential to know from term logic before studying propositional and predicate logic?
Unless you're seeking an understanding of the history and philosophy of logic, you really should not need to know anything about term logic to study propositional or predicate logic itself. Certainly the way propositional and predicate logic are standardly taught is self-contained. You may begin with some intuitive syllogisms, but ultimately you don't need to know anything deep about Aristotle's logic to learn modern predicate logic. There are plenty of high-quality free resources, e.g., http://people.ds.cam.ac.uk/tecb2/forallx.shtml