There are various philosophical theories that propose that the universe is the product of a simulation. But I was looking for theories that propose this and are also considered by physicists (not only philosophers) and related to physics. Besides, even though some physicist consider this possibility, a simulated universe is always labeled as unreal, false, iilusion...etc (For example, there are authors that include them as a multiverse theory: [See Brian Greene's classification https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Multiverse] but there are others, such as physicist Paul Davies who avoid to consider them as a real multiverse hypothesis because simulations would only be simulations, not reality, according to these authors.) So, I was hoping to find some theory that would avoid these "labels"... A theory where a simulated universe would be considered as 100% real...

I've been researching about Digital Physics models (https://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_physics) where the universe itself is modeled as a computer but these models are not capable of producing uncomputable elements (like a completely continuous space time, some types of symmetries, quantum randomness...) which are part of mainstream physics.

So do you know of any theory where the universe would exist as the product of a simulation (along other universes from the product of different simulations) which could contain uncomputable things and would be considered to be 100% real?

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    Many authors from your own Digital Physics link are physicists? If you mean mainstream models/theories, no, this is not taken seriously, more of a theoretical toy.
    – Conifold
    May 18 '19 at 19:04
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    Physicists generally prefer the simplest theory consistent with observations. If you try to explain our universe as just a simulation, you create a whole new layer of complexity that needs to be explained - just making things worse!
    – D. Halsey
    May 18 '19 at 23:45
  • @Conifold yes, all of them. There is even a Nobel laureate "Gerard 't Hooft" May 19 '19 at 0:19

Brown University physics professor James Gates has claimed to have found evidence that there are equations at the core of string theory which bear a remarkable similarity to error-correcting codes found in computer models. From this he has argued that, at its core, the universe is a simulation... of sorts. I believe he remains agnostic as to whether there is an "outside" to the simulation; he takes the (somewhat paradoxical) position that it is merely in the nature of our universe to have the structure of a simulation, but that no external universe need exist to "run" the simulation.

He participated in an interesting panel discussion a few years ago, which was covered pretty well in a Scientific American article.

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