The standard ontological classification distinguishes:

(1) particulars and universals

(2) concrete and abstract entities.

I'm wondering what place to attribute to " individuals" in this classification.

I also wonder whether entities such as " the French national football team" or " the city of Paris" , which probably can be considered as particulars, can also be considered as individual entities?

Are there " collective " individuals?

Are there particulars that are not individual beings?

  • 3
    The answer to all your questions is -- it depends on whose ontology you are working with. Some philosophers use the word 'particular' and 'individual' as synonyms. Others have reasons for distinguishing. Some philosophers hold that things like groups or cities can be particulars, others hold that they cannot. Just look into Brentano's ontology, for example, if you want to see the wildly differing understandings different philosophers have had of these notions. – transitionsynthesis May 20 '19 at 16:07

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