In the wikipedia page for Hegel's Science of Logic, it states:

According to Hegel, logic is the form taken by the science of thinking in general. He thought that, as it had hitherto been practiced, this science demanded a total and radical reformulation "from a higher standpoint." At the end of the preface he wrote that "Logic is the thinking of God." His stated goal with The Science of Logic was to overcome what he perceived to be a common flaw running through all other former systems of logic, namely that they all presupposed a complete separation between the content of cognition (the world of objects, held to be entirely independent of thought for their existence), and the form of cognition (the thoughts about these objects, which by themselves are pliable, indeterminate and entirely dependent upon their conformity to the world of objects to be thought of as in any way true). This unbridgeable gap found within the science of reason was, in his view, a carryover from everyday, phenomenal, unphilosophical consciousness.1

The task of extinguishing this opposition within consciousness Hegel believed he had already accomplished in his book Phänomenologie des Geistes (1807) with the final attainment of Absolute Knowing: "Absolute knowing is the truth of every mode of consciousness because ... it is only in absolute knowing that the separation of the object from the certainty of itself is completely eliminated: truth is now equated with certainty and certainty with truth."[2] Once thus liberated from duality, the science of thinking no longer requires an object or a matter outside of itself to act as a touchstone for its truth, but rather takes the form of its own self-mediated exposition and development which eventually comprises within itself every possible mode of rational thinking. "It can therefore be said," says Hegel, "that this content is the exposition of God as he is in his eternal essence before the creation of nature and a finite mind."[3] The German word Hegel employed to denote this post-dualist form of consciousness was Begriff (traditionally translated either as Concept or Notion).

What falls under the concept of "absolute knowledge": does that include deductive logic and scientific explanation? Does 'God' include the physical world and deductive logic?

  • Hegel (and other German idealists) worked from the distinction drawn by Kant between discursive (ectypus) and intuitive (archetypus) intellect that knows things as it creates them. Absolute knowledge roughly belongs to that latter type and needs no deductions or discursive concepts, only intellectual intuitions. Hegel goes further and essentially dissolves Kant's concept/intuition distinction, see Pippin, Hegel’s Realm of Shadows, ch. 2.
    – Conifold
    Commented Jun 23, 2019 at 21:17
  • I prefer to call Hegel's absolute form of it 'Knowledge by identity'. This is the only certain form of knowledge. It does not include deductive or sense-based knowledge, which can always be doubted. .
    – user20253
    Commented Jun 24, 2019 at 10:40
  • it that a 'no' @Conifold
    – user38026
    Commented Jun 24, 2019 at 20:47
  • cf @PeterJ
    – user38026
    Commented Jun 24, 2019 at 20:48
  • @another_name - Thanks for the link,. Apodictic proof is not knowledge by identity. The latter cannot be demonstrated.but only known. . .
    – user20253
    Commented Jun 25, 2019 at 13:11


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