I take you to be asking why the validity of an argument is defined in such a way that the truth of its premises is irrelevant to its validity. That is a great question.
It is natural to think that an argument at least purports to reveal something as true, so that, if it succeeds, that is just what it does. After all, it is natural to mark the conclusion with «therefore», not «in that case». The same point can be made by noting that stating the premises and the conclusion is usually making claims: This is the case; that is the case; therefore, this is the case. A different way of expressing your worry, if I understand you, is to ask: How can the argument be valid if it doesn’t reveal the claim following «therefore» as an expression of knowledge?
A quick and simple answer would be to say that you are failing to distinguish between the validity and the soundness of an argument, or that you are mixing up argument and proof. That might be, but I don’t think the lesson should be that you are misusing the words «argument» and «validity». What is important is that you become aware of the way you are thinking about these notions. It sounds to me like you are using «argument» as an epistemic notion, in the sense that the following captures the essence of what an argument is: An argument lends credence to its conclusion. A proof can then naturally be understood as a kind of especially strong argument: A proof reveals its conclusion as true (as the way things are). There is nothing wrong with using these words in such a way, as far as I can see, but it is not the only way to use them.
Incidentally, I think these notions are fundamentally epistemic in a way that reveals certain formal methods as unfit for studying them. Or, more carefully put: It could be that that the formal sense of validity of an argument (the one that sees the truth of the premises as irrelevant) doesn’t get to the heart of what an argument really is.
(The long and hard answer would explain why validity and soundness are distinct in formal logic, despite what I have said about the epistemic notions. If I tried to explain it, I would only cause confusion. But it is worth trying to understand.)
Some literature concerning the difference between Frege and more modern logicians is relevant. Frege said that inference must proceed from truth. See Danielle MacBeth's book Frege's Logic and Maria van der Schaar's "Frege on Judgement and the Judging Agent". Warren Goldfarb’s «Frege’s Conception of Logic» is also relevant. One exception among modern logicians might be Per Martin-Löf. I'm on thin ice here, but I think it is fair to say that he is studying logic in a sense that does not fundamentally distinguish it from epistemology.