I've been thinking a lot about foundations of science recently and I was wondering.
Are there existing books/essays/works, or were there attempts that try to achieve the following:
With a minimalist sort of mindset, come up with few key concepts and philosophical assumptions one would need to accept in order to start reasoning, doing deductions via language, model the world into language via inductive reasoning, or interpret language back to reality. Those aspects certainly seem to be important aspects of scientific reasoning, I'm interested in other principles too.
Right now I mostly have deduction in mind, but if I had to go myself with doing such a work, I'd probably try to define concepts such as language as strings of symbols which can be parsed and substituted for the purpose of deduction of new sentences that preserve truth about the world. So I might talk about some notions like truth and world, perhaps possible worlds. Later I might talk about scientific method, skepticism, simplicity. I might try to keep a tone that's not too authoritative as all these claims would be uncertain claims, as everything in science.
The public of such a work could be anyone who isn't familiar with science but is genuinely interested in understanding the deep philosophical commitments needed to start diving into it. I don't want something meant to be vulgarization. I think such a work should be technical, but still with the mindset of being as simple in concepts as possible, be very concise and straight to the point. However I wouldn't try to go in technical details of mathematical formal languages, I don't want mathematical definitions in this work. I think this work could be read by say, a smart child who probably has never done science, and is just looking to grasp the bare minimal necessary and sufficient philosophical concepts in order to get started with a good general sort of mental framework for science.
I hope you'll understand what I'm looking for, I hope such a work has been done already. Maybe I'm hoping for too much.