If I understand correctly, according to utilitarianism, in the trolley problem, the ethical action is to pull the lever, causing one person to die and saving five.
Is there a variant of utilitarianism that judges if an action (but not inaction) is the ethical choice by looking only at the bad consequences, without looking at the good ones?
For example, the bad consequences of pulling the lever would be that one person dies, so it would be unethical to pull the lever, and therefore the ethical action to do nothing at all (no matter the consequences of doing nothing).
This doesn't seem to be negative utilitarianism, as that seems to only minimize negative suffering, without making a difference between actions and inactions.
To avoid extreme examples (for example, not pulling the lever kills 100 people, pulling it only slightly hurts someone), it could be modified to say that good actions are those where bad consequences are much less than good consequences. Is there a name for this theory as well?