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I'm looking for references and "loci" regarding the concepts of opposition, distinction, diversity, and negation.

I'm not certain if one must distinguish the case in which A and B stand for concepts or propositions and that which stand for things.

As examples, I can think of the following:

  • Plato: Sophist
  • Aristotle: On Interpretation
  • Aquinas: Summa Theologiae ("In which sense is the Son other than the Father?")
  • Micraelius: Lexicon Philosophicum (diversity is a genus having as species opposition and distinction)
  • Kant: the distinction between logical opposition and real opposition
  • Levinas: the absolute opposition of "the Other".
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    I would also add Hegel to the list. Here’s a book, don’t be put off or be misled by the title, H. Marcuse “Reason and Revolution” archive.org/details/reasonandrevolut029499mbp/page/n6 You can see the use of the words “negative” or the negation here, and also not a bad introduction to Hegel and what followed from him in, Left Hegelians, Marx, Frankfurt School etc. – Gordon Nov 24 '19 at 7:59
  • @Gordon. Thanks for this interesting link. The table of contents is appealing indeed! – user39744 Nov 24 '19 at 9:50
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You might enjoy F.H.Bradley's Appearance and Reality, in which he analyses and sublates a list of everyday categories and distinctions.

There is also G. S. Brown's Laws of Form, in which he presents a formal 'calculus of indications' where an 'indication' is a distinction or category-of-thought.

There is also C.S Peirce, who did a great deal of work on opposites, categories, distinctions and the like.

In metaphysics it makes no difference whether a distinction is between ideas or objects. They would all be existents subject to the rules of set theory and dialectical logic.

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