Critics of Spinoza's concept of the 'immanence' of substance maintain that if everything in the universe is a manifestation of 'deus/sive natura/ sive substantia' then Spinoza cannot account for the finite modalities. This because humans can not conceivably 'share' any properties with god, even if god is not anthropomorphic. By employing a non-mathematical direct proportion demonstration, this critique can be shown to be without merit. Here is the proportion, followed by a bit of information to assist in looking for the answer. Substance/Mode=Sun/orange (the fruit) or, Substance bears the exact same relationship with mode as the Sun has with an orange, or potato or carrot, etc. So the question is, why does this proportional non-mathematical equation, demonstrate verifiably the relationship between 'substance' and 'mode'?
Aids- In mathematics, two varying quantities are said to be in a relation of proportionality, if they are multiplicatively connected to a constant, that is, when either their ratio or their product yields a constant. The value of this constant is called the coefficient of proportionality or proportionality constant.
Spinoza's second type of knowledge- 'Ratio' And-(19:4) Perception arising when the essence of one thing is inferred from another thing, but not adequately; this comes when [f] from some effect we gather its cause, or when it is inferred from some general proposition that some property is always present. TIE- "On the Improvement of the Understanding"(Paragraph- 19-4)
The above excerpt is how Spinoza describes the second type of knowledge, or 'ratio'. We would term it mathematical or logical certainty or verifiability. CMS