After reading Nietzsche, I got hooked on reading books full of aphorisms, especially when they touch a large number of topics. I am wondering if there's any other famous philosophers who like writing aphorisms like Nietzsche.
An other writer of aphorisms, whom Nietzsche new and appreciated is
La Rochefoucauld, Maxims
Aphorisms are a common philosophical tool, one used by any philosopher who approaches points that are metaphysical, mystical, or otherwise difficult to express directly in language. Aphorisms (like koans) are meant to draw the reader beyond the immediacy of language by posing an position that demands active reflection rather than passive acceptance.
There was a trend towards aphoristic writing in the late 19th and early 20th centuries: Nietzsche, Kierkegaard, Husserl, maybe Heidegger, certainly the later Wittgenstein, portions of Sartre, Camus, and other existentialists... That may have been related to the upswing in non-representational art (like cubism, surrealism, da-da, and stream-of-consciousness literature) that occurred around the same time. However, it's worth keeping in mind that a lot of the more aphoristic works of that period were published posthumously from the notes of authors, so the aphoristic style may reflect the incompleteness of the author's own thoughts at the time of his death, rather than any particular stylistic intent.
You might enjoy reading the works of Emil Cioran(there are plenty of his books translated into English from French and Romanian). It covers all the existential problems(and especially religion, where his ideas are very interesting, even though he is usually termed as being a nihilist) of man formulated into striking aphorisms.