in Niklas Luhmann's Texts, the form of Communication is the understanding(Verstehen) the difference between the information and the utterance(Mitteilung).

He said, then we can know that the information is the Other-reference(Fremdreferenz) of the communication because the information can operate in other layers of Systems, e.g. Biological Systems(Life), Mechanical Systems(Machine), or Cognitive Systems(Mind), as well as the utterance is the Self-reference(Selbstreferenz) of that because the utterance must operate in the layer of Communicative Systems(Society).

but I can't know why he used the concept of "reference" so I searched How this concept works in Literature.


I've learned this concept first in the class of Programming Languages.

When I was learning on the semantics of Programming languages, we had to deal with the difference of the various types of parameter passing methods.

in passing parameters, we can pass them in 3 major ways: to pass by Value; pass by Reference; or pass by Name.

in this concept the Reference is like the invisible address Variable which just can be used in passing so we can't directly manipulte it.

therefore, the reference is not the referred object because it is the hidden address variable.


But when I have been learning about the Philosophy of Frege, He uses the concept of reference in opposite way.

he distinguished the concept of Meaning and Reference.

he said, Meaning is the internal structure of a concept and Reference is the referred object which is represented by the concept.

in this view, the reference is the referred object.


so, I have known the two conceptions of Reference that are opposite to each other.

but then, What is the reference concept of Luhmann?

at least I want to know the names of books in which I can get the information that I want.

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