Some programming languages use Duck Typing to determine types of Objects, based on their methods and properties and not their declared type.

Simplified, it goes down to the premise

"If it walks like a duck and it quacks like a duck, then it must be a duck"

However it remains unknown to me, whether this Method can or can not be validly used in a scientific context.

If not, what are the concerns against using it, considering a well-defined set of properties to define a Duck.

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    If it swim like a fish, it is a fish: See whale. Jan 21, 2020 at 12:58
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    @MauroALLEGRANZA A whale doesn't breath like a fish and isn't born like a fish, so this perfectly illustrates why you'd need a proper set of constraints.
    – Mast
    Jan 22, 2020 at 8:28
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    Duck Typing isn't used to "determine types of Objects". It doesn't care about types or classes. It only cares if objects can be used for a particular purpose. Jan 22, 2020 at 9:34
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    @Jankapunkt: No verification needed. To calculate x + 3, the duck-typed programming language simply sends x a request to launch a method (possibly called add) with the argument 3, and hopes x knows what to do with it. It will work with every number. It might work for other objects, depending if add is defined. If not, an error will be sent. duck + 3 probably won't work. Jan 22, 2020 at 10:18
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    Whales don't swim like fish anyway, @MauroALLEGRANZA. Fish swish on a horizontal axis, while swimming mammals wriggle on a vertical axis. That said, cladistically, there is famously no such thing as a fish.
    – TRiG
    Jan 23, 2020 at 16:46

6 Answers 6


Duck typing in philosophy is variously called structuralism or functionalism, depending on the context. The idea that duck typing is the best way to articulate our commitment to scientifically-postulated entities, in particular, is most closely related to what philosophers call structural realism: the thesis that we should "epistemically commit ourselves only to the mathematical or structural content of our theories" (from the SEP entry linked above).

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    This reading is an excellent extension to the answer.
    – Jankapunkt
    Jan 22, 2020 at 8:40
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    (*commitmemt -> commitment)
    – ANeves
    Jan 24, 2020 at 15:23

You always run the risk of it being a goose!


I would actually argue that nearly all of science uses this mentality. Most famously, it shows up in wave/particle duality. We assume light is a wave, because it looks like a wave and behaves like a wave. Or we assume light is a particle, because it looks like a particle and behaves like a particle. And, for the most part, this distinction serves us well. We treat light as a particle or wave, based on its behaviors. At least, this works until quantum mechanical bits cause us to start questioning the nature of light because it's starting to look funny and act a bit odd. When we consider duality, we have to recognize that light isn't a wave and isn't a particle. It's light. And sometimes it acts like a wave, sometimes it acts like a particle, and sometimes it just acts really honking weird.

Then we look at it and say... well... it looks like a superposable wave function, and it acts like a superposable wave function...

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    Science is often about modeling. We don't say that light "is" a particle or wave, just that treating it as one or the other in a particular context allows us to make useful predictions about how it behaves.
    – Barmar
    Jan 22, 2020 at 16:00
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    @Barmar I think some scientists are precise in the way you describe. I appreciate them for it. However, I do not find this to be common enough. This is especially true when I hear talk about photons.
    – Cort Ammon
    Jan 22, 2020 at 17:54
  • Adding to that - we like to categorize new things as "similar to something known" to make ourselves comfortable with the unknown ... Also natural sciences' core is this categorizing - we like to describe as many things as possible with a single "class" - to make use of their similarity. This eases with work - and allows to focus on their specializing differences.
    – eagle275
    Jan 23, 2020 at 11:13
  • It's not just light that behaves funny. The double slit works with electrons too! You could probably go back a bit further too. Newtonian physics is "close enough" - as such, it's a duck until your duck starts to travel near the speed of light.
    – UKMonkey
    Jan 24, 2020 at 12:10
  • Geese don't look like ducks: the necks are too long.
    – RonJohn
    Jan 24, 2020 at 19:04

tl;dr Science is weakly typed rather than either duck-typed or strongly typed.


  1. Duck-typing isn't about type-determination, but rather ignoring types entirely.

  2. You probably meant to ask about "weak typing", where things can be considered ducks if we're able to frame them as such.

  3. Yes, science is weakly typed.

1: Duck-typing isn't about type-determination, but rather ignoring types entirely.

Duck typing isn't about determining an object's type, but rather about not caring. As far as duck-typing is concerned, all objects are of the same, implicit type; any variance in behavior is up to the object itself.

For example, in C#:

class DuckObject
    private Dictionary<string, Action<object>> MethodDictionary { get; set; }

    public void Call(
                string methodName
            ,   object methodArgument

Then instead of writing x.Quack();, we'd write

            "Quack"           //  Name of the called method
        ,   new object[] { }  //  Arguments object, which contains no subordinate arguments in this case.


In other words, x is duck enough for the purpose of .Quack()'ing like a duck if it can .Quack().

2: You probably meant to ask about "weak typing", where things can be considered ducks if we're able to frame them as such.

In weakly typed languages, x is a duck if we can frame it as one.

For example, in C#:


Weak-typing is stronger than duck-typing because it's not enough for something to .Quack() like a duck to be a duck; instead, we must be able to coerce something into being a duck.

Weak-typing is weaker than strong-typing because it doesn't require something to be a duck so long as it can be regarded as a duck.

3: Yes, science is weakly typed.

Scientific models work when we can make them work. For example, cows can be spherical when such a description is adequate.

Which is to say that, yes, a duck is a duck when such a description is adequate. Even if it's actually an advanced robot pretending to be a duck, it's still a duck if it's close enough, but it isn't if it isn't.

In practice, scientists, engineers, etc., tend to work with models that they know to be imperfect.

  • This isn't a duck-typing logic because it's not enough for something to merely have some shared quality with its abstract representation.

  • This is a weak-typing logic in that requires something to be framable as its abstract representation.

  • This isn't a strong-typing logic in that there's no need for something to be its abstract representation.

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    Good points. I'm not sure about your C# example, though. C# is very much strongly typed. A better example of weak typing would be Javascript implicitly converting types, e.g. 1 + '2' #=> '12' or 1 - '2' #=> -1. Those operations would raise exceptions in C#/Java/Python/Ruby/... Jan 24, 2020 at 18:32
  • @EricDuminil The example's showing that soft typing is like explicitly casting C# objects into the intended type before making a call. For example, we don't call x.Quack();, but rather ((Duck)x).Quack();. Such a call convention causes C# to become softly typed.
    – Nat
    Jan 24, 2020 at 20:55
  • @EricDuminil Yup, inserting explicit casting substitutes for the language's choice to not do so implicitly. That said, type-checking is appropriate; if we omit it and just make the call, e.g. as in ((dynamic)x).Quack(), that'd be duck-typing instead.
    – Nat
    Jan 24, 2020 at 21:05
  • @EricDuminil Naw, it's a trivial observation. Lemme know if anything's unclear. But to be clear, C# itself is strong-ish-ly typed; it's C# with the specified call convention that's softly typed. (With exceptions -- the inheritance system is a relaxation from full strong typing, and the DLR is a relaxation to duck-typing.)
    – Nat
    Jan 24, 2020 at 21:12

Duck typing is useful when you have a messy set of things which have various properties which make it hard to organise them into clear nonoverlapping categories, just like real life.

I'm sure there are lots of examples of duck typing in the physical sciences, but one that came to my mind is the particle/wave nature of light. Duck typing says that we don't have to put light into only one box, but can treat it as a particle when that suits us, and treat it as a wave when that suits us. It also doesn't preclude us from finding a third category that can better handle both sets of behaviours in a unified explanation.

  • I believe what you are talking about is correctly identifying two cases of light, not saying it has no properties. For instance, treating light like a fresh baked biscuit might not be appropriate, even though both give heat. In programming, duck typing is terrible for communication (an untyped library is amazingly irritating to use), in science it seems like we started with something like "Duck Typing" and have been moving away from it for our entire existence (coincidentally, the same path many programmers take over their careers--away from loose typing toward strong typing).
    – Bill K
    Jan 21, 2020 at 20:56

Well, the short answer is that duck typing is a programming concept, so it doesn't make sense to ask whether or not duck typing is usable outside of programming. It's a lot like how sautéing is a cooking concept, and so it doesn't make sense to ask whether or not sautéing is usable outside of cooking.

That said, the idea behind duck typing is:

Do not attempt to determine in advance whether or not an object is usable. Instead, simply attempt to use it.

(In particular, idea behind duck typing is not "if it walks like a duck and it quacks like a duck, then it must be a duck.")

This idea is certainly very common outside of programming. For example, when I get into my car in the morning, how do I determine whether or not my car is drivable? I don't; instead, simply attempt to drive it. When I want to turn on the light in a room, how do I determine whether or not the light switch is functional? I don't; instead, I simply flip it. When I want to turn on the TV, how do I determine whether or not the remote control I have is the correct one? I don't; instead, I simply try to use it to turn on the TV.

The negation of this idea is also very common outside of programming. For example, when I want to determine whether or not a given liquid is drinkable, I do not simply drink it; instead, I first look at its packaging to see whether or not it's a beverage. When I want to determine whether or not an airplane is airworthy, I do not simply attempt to fly it; instead, I first check it for damage and proper functioning. When I want to cross the road, I do not simply cross it; instead, I first check whether or not any cars are approaching.

And, of course, the idea of "simply attempt to use it" is certainly common in scientific practice, too. If a scientist needs to heat something over a flame, they don't test the flame to determine whether or not it's hot; they simply use it. If an electrical engineer wants to connect two components together using a wire, they don't test the wire to determine whether or not it conducts electricity; they simply use it. You could probably think of a thousand examples.

  • Your first paragraph doesn't make much sense. There are many concepts which are defined in one domain and can be used in many others. Foams appear in cooking, biology and physics, for example. Entropy appears in math, physics and programming... Jan 22, 2020 at 9:39
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    Re "To determine whether or not an object is usable, simply attempt to use it.", Duck typing isn't about trying things to see if they work; it's the ability to see/use things based on their properties rather than based on their classification. "I don't care what it is, as long as it does what I want." If anything, it's the opposite of what you describe; there's an expectation that it will work when invoked. Not working is an error, not a successful check to see if it works.
    – ikegami
    Jan 22, 2020 at 10:52
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    @EricDuminil "There are many concepts which are defined in one domain and can be used in many others." – Right, but I don't think duck typing is one of those concepts. Jan 22, 2020 at 15:37
  • @ikegami I think you have a point. I've edited my answer a bit; how does it look now? Jan 22, 2020 at 15:40
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    @ikegami - "Duck typing isn't about trying things to see if they work". It most certainly is. The python language is built around this concept. See this answer here.
    – noslenkwah
    Jan 22, 2020 at 22:01

Duck-typing reminds me the most of societal contracts, by which I mean behaviours expected of us from society through convention rather than law.

A lot of software development is creating contracts between actors. When we say a function's parameter is of a certain type, we are creating a contract between the function and its callers which is enforced by the compiler. Break the contract, and the code will fail to compile.[1]

Unlike systems that use roles or interfaces, there is no enforcer when it comes to duck-typing. It is an unspecified convention to which the actors must adhere for the code to function.[2]

This is akin to societal norms like not coughing in someone's face. There is no law that tells someone not to do this, yet there are consequences to someone doing it.

This doesn't really answer your question, but I hope you find this interesting. I'm a software developer that stumbled upon your question.

  1. Compiling code is part of the process of creating an application, as opposed to executing it.
  2. Unspecified in the code. The documentation may well specify, just like books on manners may prescribe socially acceptable behaviours.
  • In retrospect, this is more about weak typing in general (whatever that means), not just duck typing.
    – ikegami
    Jan 22, 2020 at 11:39

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