In logic we can't make any deductions without rules of inference, predicates, and formulas. In probability/statistic we can't make any inferences without assuming some probabilistic model which might include families of distributions connected by joint probabilities together with observed data.
With a model of inference, I mean for example predicate logic together with predicates that represent information in a domain. Or probability theory together with distributions that represent information in a domain. Predicate logic has rules of inference, like modus ponens, probability theory has Bayes rule. However, are these models of inference always needed for reasoning?
Am I correct in thinking that in any form of reasoning a model is needed?
If not, would you be able to give an example of reasoning where a model of inference is not required to make inferences?
(This might be a stupid question, I can't think of any possibility where we can reason without a model. However, it doesn't mean that if I can't possibly conceive a situation that it is actually impossible.)