Can anyone point me to good contemporary articles that discuss the relationship between virtue and well-being?
These aren't articles but books:
You may be interested in, the Irish-British philosopher Iris Murdoch book, on the sovereignty of the good - by her own admission she was influenced by Plato & Simone Weil - particularly Weils notion of attention.
Amartya Sen, the economist & philosopher pioneered a new direction to virtue ethics in economics & government to wider ideas of well-being/flourishing, called the capabilities approach, tying it to notions of human dignity & flourishing rather than narrow measures of economic and material benefit.
This has been further developed by Martha Nussbaum, the American philosopher, who also has written extensively on virtue ethics, the roots in Aristotle, contrasting Platos conception of the Good against the image of this by the tragedians/Aristotle in her book the fragility of goodness. She applies the approach pioneered by Sen to notions of global justice in Women & Global Development.