Is there a history of science concept of a demon who tries to mislead man or something along the same line? I am thinking of something like Laplace's demon, but specifically for science or philosophy, but not theology if it's possible. Is there any such concept or idea?
The Evil Demon or Descartes' demon is an entity that has the power to fully and utterly deceive, basically making up all of your perceptions so there is nothing at all you can possibly be sure of as being real. It provides an argument to doubt everything, including your own senses and experiences.
Oppenheimer is known for having quoted the Bhagavad Gita at the first atom bomb test:
"Now I am become death [literally: `the world-destroying time], the destroyer of worlds"
He later said:
"In some sort of crude sense which no vulgarity, no humour, no overstatements can quite extinguish, the physicists have known sin; and this is a knowledge which they cannot lose.”
That's the closest example I can think of.