Are there records of there being Epicureans in Judea of the 1st-3rd centuries CE or in surrounding territories? And if so, were there any notable ones among them?
There were Epicureans in Judea, as we learn mostly, or entirely, from their opponents. As it turns out, Epicurus' name has the distinction of being the only1 philosopher named in the Mishnah (Avot 2:14), used to refer to a member of the school.
Henry Fischel (Rabbinic literature and Greco-Roman philosophy pp. 2-3) lists the following evidence for Epicureanism in Judea, later Palestine (I use his words where possible and omit mention of philosophers outside of Judea/Palestine):
The anti-Epicurean Nicolaus of Damascus, Aristotelian court historian of Herod (c. 73-4 B.C.) in Jerusalem.
Some time before 165 Justin Martyr of Palestinian Shechem (Nablus) had opened the patristic opposition continuing where Paul had left off.
Origen, head of the catechetic school of Caesarea of Palestine for approximately twenty years (c. 232-252), who had studied Hebrew under Hillel, brother of the Patriarch Judah II, accused his opponent throughout most of his contra Celsum as an Epicurean and in the more than twenty passages of this attack reveals a considerable knowledge of Epicureanism.
Eusebius of Caesarea of Palestine, fl. 300, who preserved important Epicurean materials in his works, quotes fragments and anti-Stoic polemics of an Epicurean Diogenianus (c. 200) of uncertain nationality.
Fischel also considers the legends about the four who entered Pardes (= Epicurus' Garden) and others to be about exposure to Epicureanism. If Ben Azzai, Ben Zoma, Elisha ben Avuyah, and Rabbi Akiva are presented as (former) Epicureans, this would attest at the very least to familiarity with Epicureanism in the milieu, if not also some involvement in Epicureanism by the named persons.
1 Not counting Avoda Zara 3:4, where Philosophos is either a personal name or a textual error, despite one very tentative opinion to the contrary.